Southern Black Sea coast

Southern Black Sea coast

The area of the Southern Black Sea coast is a narrow strip, running along the southern parts of the Bulgarian coastline of the Black Sea, south of Emine Cape. The climate is hot and dry with pronounced Mediterranean influence, which predetermines rich flora with many southern species. The vegetation varies a lot from a place to place. It has been subject of human influence and is in some places degraded, but in many places the natural vegetation is still well-preserved. Typical for the area are the sand or gravel beaches, extensive dune complexes, thermophilous broadleaf forests (mostly oak) and riparian flooded forests.

Black_Sea_South

© Boris Assyov

The endemic plants are poorly presented in this area. Centaurea euxina and Oenanthe millefolia are the most notable Bulgarian endemics. A few Balkan species may be seen here, namely Bupleurum apiculatum, Cardamine penzesii, Heptaptera triquetra, Iris suaveolens, Knautia macedonica, Silene frivaldskyana, Stachys thracica, and Tulipa thracica.

Several orchids are seen here, especially Anacamptis pyramidalis, Himantoglossum caprinum, Limodorum abortivum, Orchis papilionacea, O. purpurea, and Serapias vomeracea.

Among the protected species, the following are especially notable: Aegilops geniculata, Alyssum borzaeanum, Anemone pavonina, Argusia sibirica, Calystegia soldanella, Centaurea arenaria, Cyclamen coum, Ephedra distachya, Eryngium maritimum, Fritillaria pontica, Goniolimon collinum, G. tataricum, Lepidotrichum uechtritzianum, Limonium latifolium, Maresia nana, Nuphar lutea, Nymphaea alba, Pancratium maritimum, Prangos ferulacea, Salvia forskahlei, Scilla bithynica, Silene euxina, Stachys maritima, Trachomitum venetum, Trapa natans, Verbascum bugulifolium, and V. purpureum.

Other notable plant species are Acer tataricum, Achillea coarctata, Allium amethystinum, Alyssum borzaeanum, Asphodeline lutea, Bellardia trixago, Bituminaria bituminosa, Cakile maritima,  Carduus thoermeri, Carthamus lanatus, Centaurea salonitana, C. thracica, Cionura erecta, Cistus incanus, Clematis viticella, Colutea arborescens, Convolvulus cantabrica, Coronilla emerus, Crambe maritima, Digitalis lanata, Echium plantagineum, Euphorbia myrsinites, E. paralias, Fritillaria pontica, Geranium asphodeloides, G. sanguineum, Gladiolus italicus, Glaucium corniculatum, Hypecoum ponticum, Iris sintenisii, Jasminum fruticans, Jurinea albicaulis, Knautia integrifolia, Lathyrus digitatus, Lathyrus laxiflorus, Linum tauricum, Lonicera etrusca, Lupinus graecus, Lychnis coronaria, Medicago marina, Mespilus germanica, Nectaroscordum siculum, Onobrychis aequidentata, O. caput-gali, Onopordum tauricum, Opopanax chironium, Otanthus maritimus, Periploca graeca, Peucedanum arenarium, Phlomis herba-ventis, Pistacia terebinthus, Primula acaulis, Pyrus elaeagrifolia, Rhus coriaria, Ruscus aculeatus, Scabiosa argentea, Scolymus hispanicus, Scorpiurus subvillosus, Silene thymifoliaSilybum marianum, Tamarix ramosissima, Thelypteris thelypteroides, Trachystemon orientalis, Tribulus terrestris, Verbascum phoeniceum, Vicia bythinica, and Xeranthemum annuum.

Strandzha books en

Some interesting coastal plants are illustrated in the book “The Plants of Strandja Nature Park”. It is available in English.